The Science Behind FR Clothing


If you are working in an industry that deals with electric, oil, and gas, then it is sure that you are subjected to fire and intense sparks. This is why Fire Resistant is highly in demand as it protects from arc flash, flash fire, and flammable dust hazards.

But there is a certain touch of science which the clothing needs to resist against such mishaps. Manufacturers create these clothes with the help of people who are specialized in science, as they can provide the right judgment about the materials or textiles needed.

The scientific study behind the creation

The scientific study behind the creation
of fr-clothing

By knowing the risk percentage and type of hazards may arise in a particular type of factory, scientists keep a deep technical understanding of fire. Today’s technology develops clothes that can put out flames and reduce the risk of damage one might suffer.

The selection of garments will be based on different types of hazards. The technology with which the garments are made wouldn’t be flushed out after laundry. In the present situation, there is no such powerful FR cloth that can protect from all types of industrial hazards.

Different sets of workers require different FR clothes as electrical workers mostly met with electrical arc flash hazard, whereas those who work in petrochemical have a high risk of meeting flash fire, but also the situation changes for a firefighter who will be exposed to fire for a long duration.

However, the situation is changing as manufacturers are trying to manufacture FR Fabrics that protect against fire and thermal hazards all at the same time.

So, mostly char-forming agents, gas-phase radical scavengers, and high-temperature fibres are technologies that are used to create FR fabric. You can check out more products at

Char-Forming FR Agents

Char-Forming FR Agents

To make the fabric permanently flame resistant manufacturers saturate the fabric with phosphorus-based FR agent solution, by retaining the original look of a garment and bringing in the comfort that cotton and rayon fabrics provide.

The char-forming agents used in combination with cellulose fibres are cotton, rayon, or lyocell. The fibres will break down into gaseous fuel, and then a reaction between the fuel molecules and phosphorous agents happen to form solid char.

This char is necessary for the fabric as it consumes gaseous molecules and also creates a layer over the fabric, thus preventing it from breaking down further. Thus these agents form materials that deprive fuel.

Gas-Phase Radical Scavengers

Gas-Phase Radical Scavengers

Another technology that is used is the chlorine-based gas-phase radical scavengers, which has a fibre structure, which contains a unique property of stable radicals when exposed to heat.

Hereafter the fuel breaks apart, and free radicals are formed, which, when combined with chlorine, become trapped or “scavenged.” This removes the fire of the chemical chain-reaction, thus acting as a suppressor of fire.

The chlorine atoms, when unified into an acrylic fibre form “modacrylic.” This makes it easy to maintain the softness of the fabric. The non-FR fibres can also be blended with the FR fibres, and that can provide more protection.

High-Temperature Fibres

High-Temperature Fibres

The technology of high-temperature fibres has a molecular structure that can resist up to 750F of temperature. The Aramid fibre can withstand thermal events that are longer in duration, as no fire retardant chemicals that are used.

They are mostly used for military flight suits and firefighter turnout, as during flash fire that exposure to fire is for a longer time. The fabrics are durable but too stiff and increase sweat, thus giving an uncomfortable feeling to the user.


Thus it must be said that with these technologies, the FR clothes of any type will at least protect against basic burns or electrical incidents. But it is advisable to choose the correct FR fabric depending on the environment one is working.

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